Birds and Poultry

Birds in pain show escape reactions, vocalization, and excessive movement. Small species struggle less and emit fewer distress calls than large species. Head movements increase in extent and frequency. There may also be an increase in heart and respiratory rates.

Birds with chronic pain may exhibit a passive immobility characterized by a crouched posture with closed or partially closed eyes and head drawn toward the body and may also become inappetent and inactive with a drooping, miserable appearance, holding their wings flat against the body and their neck retracted. There may be reduced perching or birds may remain at the bottom of the cage. When a bird is handled, its escape reaction may be replaced by immobility. Birds with limb pain avoid use of the affected limb and refrain from extension.