Report Briefing Webinar: Coastal Blue Carbon as a Negative Emissions Technology
Thursday, December 6
10:00 AM ET
Negative emissions technologies (NETs) that aim to remove and sequester excess carbon from the atmosphere have been identified as an important part of the portfolio of responses to climate change. These approaches have been garnering new attention as the international community has identified lower thresholds for global temperature increases, which can only be accomplished with net negative carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration: A Research Agenda, which was released in October 2018, provides a detailed research and development agenda needed to assess the benefits, risks, and sustainable scale potential for carbon dioxide removal and sequestration approaches; and increase their commercial viability.
One of the carbon removal approaches the committee assessed is coastal blue carbon, which involves land use and management practices to increase the carbon stored in living plants and soils of coastal ecosystems, particularly mangroves, tidal marshes, and seagrass beds. Committee member, Tiffany Troxler, Florida International University, will present findings and recommendations from the report with a focus on coastal blue carbon. The webinar will cover the state of knowledge related to carbon capacity and flux in coastal systems, the processes driving sustainability of coastal wetland carbon storage in the future, and the essential components of a coastal blue carbon research and development program, including its estimated costs and potential impact.
Click on the event name to view the agenda with links to recordings of the presentations and slides.
Meeting 1: Developing a Research Agenda for Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration — May 24, 2017
500 Fifth St. NW, Washington, DC
8:00 a.m. – 1:00 p.m. ET
GOALS FOR THE OPEN SESSION DISCUSSIONS
- Clearly understand the needs, perspectives, and expectations of the study sponsors
- Explore the committee’s task with other stakeholders
1:00 P.M.: Introductions (Committee and guests) — Steve Pacala, Committee Chair
1:45 P.M.: Study Sponsors’ Perspectives on the Committee’s Task
- More clearly understand perspectives of report sponsors – what are the most important issues to be covered in the report?
- Explore nuances of committee’s task – what should be included in report?
- What is hoped for out of study – both as a direct deliverable and what would “success” look like?
2:45 P.M.: Break
3:15 P.M.: Continue discussing study sponsor perspectives on the task
4:45 P.M.: Public comment session to allow all meeting participants to offer additional contributions to the discussion — Steve Pacala | Video
- What issues are important to other communities?
- How might this study be the most useful to the broader community?
- What are the most urgent unanswered scientific and technical questions?
5:30 P.M.: Adjourn Open Session
Webinar: Introduction to Blue Carbon and Coastal Wetland Restoration—July 19, 2017
Webinar objective: to provide an introduction to blue carbon and explore the costs, challenges, and benefits of restoring coastal wetlands, and how blue carbon benefits may motivate restoration.
2:05 PM: Discussion and questions from study committee
2:30 PM: Adjourn
Workshop on Blue Carbon—July 26, 2017
8:30 A.M.: Introductions and Goals of the Workshop—Steve Pacala, Committee Chair, and Tiffany Troxler, Committee Member | slides |
9:00 A.M.: Session 1—Current state of knowledge on scientific and technical research requirements to understand the capacity and flux of blue carbon as a CDR approach (i.e. carbon benefits)
- What is known about the carbon storage potential of coastal wetlands?
- What is the state of the science on GHG methodologies (gas flux, C stock, soil accretion)?
- What do we need to know about the landscape-level processes that impact wetland formation and loss (e.g. sediment processes, salinity regimes and saltwater intrusion, eutrophication, coastal ocean carbon cycling, wetland management)?
- What is the impact of changing salinity regimes on carbon sequestration? On methane emissions? Other factors that are wetland-type specific?
Introduction to Session 1—Jianwu (Jim) Tang, Marine Biological Laboratory | video |
- Pat Megonigal, Smithsonian Ecological Research Center | slides |video |
- Julie Simpson, Massachusetts Institute of Technology | slides | video |
- Robert Twilley, Louisiana State University | slides | video |
- Kevin Kroeger, U.S. Geological Survey | slides | video |
- Neil Ganju, U.S. Geological Survey | slides | video |
- Discussion | video |
10:45 A.M.: Break
11:00 A.M.: Session 2—Research needs for predicting across multiple scales impacts of disturbance to the future state of coastal wetlands and CDR potential
- What is the state of the science for robustly measuring, mapping, and scaling carbon removal and sequestration from the plot-level to the national scale?
- How may climate change and disturbances impact primary production in a coastal wetland and CDR flux and capacity?
- What is the state of the science on modeling future conditions?
- How will CDR change near-term (10-25 yrs) and long-term (50- to 100-yr) with SLR and increasing urbanization/upland conversion/water abstraction?
- Lisamarie Windham-Myers, U.S. Geological Survey | slides | video |
- James Morris, University of South Carolina | slides | video |
- Matt Kirwan, Virginia Institute of Marine Science | slides | video |
- Scott Hagen, Louisiana State University | slides | video |
- Discussion | video |
12:45 P.M.: Lunch
1:45 P.M.: Session 3—State of the knowledge on incentives of the blue carbon approach
- What information is needed to assess the commercial viability of blue carbon crediting for wetland restoration and mitigation?
- What do we know about the co-benefits of the blue carbon approach and their economic value? (e.g. ecosystem services – coastal protection services, wetland mitigation)
- What are common knowledge needs/strategies for adopting nature-based solutions that could enhance blue carbon CDR?
- Steve Crooks, Silvestrum Climate Associates | slides | video |
- Katie Arkema, Stanford University | slides | video |
- Edward Barbier, University of Wyoming | slides | video |
- Discussion | video |
3:15 P.M.: Break
3:30 P.M.: Session 4—State of the knowledge on policy/legal questions and social/institutional constraints surrounding changes in coastal management
- Are there policies that could be more effective in enhancing CDR potential?
- What are policies aimed at coastal management for flood mitigation/coastal protection services?
- Do existing coastal policies enhance or deter adoption of CDR implementation? What are barriers? How do we overcome them?
- What is the public acceptance of changes in land cover and land use due to wetland restoration or migration?
- Ariana Sutton-Grier, University of Maryland and The Nature Conservancy | slides | video |
- Sam Brody, Texas A&M University Galveston| slides | video |
- Scott Pippin, University of Georgia | slides | video |
- Clark Miller, Arizona State University
- Discussion | video |
5:00 P.M.: Adjourn
Webinar on Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration—September 14, 2017
Webinar Objective: To provide an introduction to terrestrial carbon sequestration and explore the
costs, challenges, and benefits of introducing management practices and land use changes that
increase C sequestration.
11:00: Opening Remarks—Keith Paustian, Committee Member
12:45: Q&A | video |
Workshop on Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration—September 19, 2017
Welcome Remarks from CSU administration
- Dr. Tony Frank, CSU President and Chancellor of CSU system | video |
- Dr. Gene Kelly, Assoc. Dean for Extension and Deputy Director Agricultural Experiment Station | video |
Introductions and Goals of the Workshop
Remarks from Workshop Organizers (Terrestrial Carbon Group)
SESSION 1: Current state of knowledge on the capacity (i.e., carbon benefits) of terrestrial carbon as a CDR approach and the scientific and technical research requirements to achieve this capacity.
- What is known about the carbon storage potential of different land use and management practices?
- What do we need to know about the field-level and landscape-level processes that impact terrestrial C sequestration and loss (e.g., soil erosion, cropping systems, deforestation, carbon cycling, etc.)?
- What is the impact of changing land use and management practices on carbon sequestration, GHG emissions? Other factors that are terrestrial-system specific?
- What are the significant gaps that limit our ability to assess how changing land management alters the terrestrial (including aquatic) and atmospheric carbon budget?
Introduction to Session 1—Dr. Steve Pacala, Committee Chair | video |
- Cropland: Jean-Francois Soussana, INRA (via WebEx) | slides | video |
- Forestry: Tara Hudiburg, University of Idaho (via WebEx) | slides | video |
- Grassland: Alan Franzluebbers, USDA-ARS (via WebEx) | slides | video |
- Biochar Applications: Johannes Lehmann, Cornell University | slides | video |
Discussion | video |
SESSION 2: Research needs for predicting across multiple scales the impacts of land use change and management practices to the future of terrestrial C storage and CDR potential
- What is the state of the science for robustly measuring, mapping, and scaling carbon dioxide removal (CDR) and sequestration from the field-level to the regional and national scale?
- What is the state of the science on GHG measurement methodologies (gas fluxes, soil C change)?
- What is the state of the science on modeling impacts of land use and management on soil C stock changes?
- How will CDR strategies change in the short-term (10-25 yrs) and long-term (50- to 100-yrs), as a function of climate change and land use change (e.g., urbanization, forest and grassland ecosystem conversion to food & fuel production use)?
- Stephen Ogle, Colorado State University | slides | video |
- Steve Hamburg, Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) | slides | video |
- Rob Jackson, Stanford University (via WebEx) | slides | video |
- Grant Domke, US Forest Service (via WebEx) | slides | video |
Discussion | video |
SESSION 3: State of the knowledge on policies and incentives and socio-economic constraints on terrestrial C sequestration activities
- What policy options are suited for land use and management for C sequestration and GHG emission mitigation? What are the likely costs?
- Do existing land use and agriculture programs policies enhance or deter adoption of CDR implementation? What are barriers? How do we overcome them?
- What information is needed to assess the commercial viability of practices or land use change for C sequestration?
- What do we know about the co-benefits and negative impacts of the C sequestration terrestrial management practices and their economic value? (i.e., ecosystem services, soil health, water quality, etc.)? How important are induced or secondary macro-economic effects?
- John Antle, Oregon State University (via WebEx) | slides | video |
- Debbie Reed, Coalition on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (C-AGG) | slides | video |
- Adam Chambers, USDA NRCS | slides | video |
- Joe Cornelius, ARPA-E | slides | video |
- Toby Janson-Smith, Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) (via WebEx) | slides | video |
Discussion | video |
Webinar on Direct Air Capture—October 5, 2017
Perspectives from Thought Leaders of Direct Air Capture
- Klaus Lackner, Arizona State University | slides | video (partial) |
- David Keith, Harvard Paulson School of Engineering and Applies Sciences | video |
- Peter Eisenberger, Columbia University | slides | video |
On the Path to Commercial-Scale Approaches to Direct Air Capture
- Jan Wurzbacher – Climeworks | slides | video |
- Alina Chanaewa – Skytree | slides | video |
- Eric Ping – Global Thermostat | slides | video |
- Geoff Holmes – Carbon Engineering | video |
Discussion | video |
Geoff Holmes, Carbon Engineering
Greg Dipple, University of British Columbia
Niall Mac Dowell, Imperial College of London
Roger Aines, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Webinar on Bio-Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage—October 16, 2017
Webinar objective: To provide an introduction to BECCS as a carbon dioxide removal approach, specifically panelists will explore the capacity for biomass to meet stationary generation and transportation fuel needs, the status, challenges, and costs of implemented bioenergy and biofuels, the technical challenges in utilizing various feedstocks, balancing desired properties and yields, and the navigation of land use competition among stakeholders.
12:30 PM: Opening Remarks—Erica Belmont, Committee Member | video |
12:35 PM: Biomass Supply Capacity and Strategies
- Process flow overview of biomass supply strategies
- What is the realistic potential for biomass supply, and what are the constraints (e.g. food and fiber)?
- What is the capacity for biomass to meet stationary generation and transportation fuel needs?
Matt Langholtz, Natural Resource Economist, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
- Economic considerations of biomass supply strategies
- What are the impediments to the economic feasibility of bio-energy and biofuel/biochar approaches?
1:05 PM: Prospects of BECCS and Negative Carbon Potentials
- Overview of the status of BECCS
- General considerations of capacity and status of biomass for electricity generation
- What are the potentials for negative emissions capacity?
- What are the associated impacts of bio-energy (e.g. land-use impacts)?
1:25 PM Status, Capacity, and Challenges of Biomass to Fuels/Char
- Perspectives on biomass supply
- What is the status of implemented bioenergy and biofuels, including capacities, biomass types, and conversion methods (e.g. gasification, combustion in air, pyrolysis, etc.): challenges and costs?
- Negative pathway potentials of biomass to fuels/char
1:45 PM: Q&A | video |
2:15 PM: Adjourn Webinar
Workshop on Bio-Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage—October 23, 2017
Workshop objective: to determine the status and research needs to quantify the potential of bio-energy with carbon capture and storage as a carbon dioxide removal approach, including biomass production capacities that minimize GHG emissions, broader implications of various feedstock utilizations, advanced conversion technologies, capture and storage strategies, and cross-cutting issues that include life cycle impacts of large-scale deployment, policies and incentives for implementation of BECCS approaches, and social acceptability barriers.
08:30 AM: Opening Remarks and Workshop Goals
Session I: State of the knowledge on the capacity of BECCS as a CDR approach and technical research needs for biomass supply and conversion technologies, including capture and storage strategies.
08:45 AM: Supply
- How to achieve biomass production capacity in a way that minimizes GHG emissions (harvesting, transportation, pretreatment)
- Assessment of the potential supply of bio-energy feedstocks
- Considerations of the co-location of supply and demand
- What are desirable feedstock properties (i.e. crops, agricultural waste)
- Broader implications of utilizing different feedstocks (forest, crop, algae, waste) in terms of land use competition, fertilizer use, water requirements, etc.
- Market considerations of bio-energy supply
- Overview of bio-energy feedstock supply (woody biomass) and research needs, including radius of biomass supply, high-level overview of biomass from logging residues, and associated climate change mitigation potential
Wellington Muchero, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
- Genetic basis of tree growth and development and potential for research to improve bioenergy feedstocks
Robert Abt, North Carolina State University
- General market considerations of bio-energy demand and supply response
09:30 AM: Discussion | video
10:30 AM: Conversion
- Status and research needs on biomass conversion technologies, including combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis
- Prospects and benefits of advanced combustion strategies (i.e. pressurized oxy-combustion, chemical looping)
- Potential to improve carbon negativity of a combined biofuel/biochar approach
- Current status of carbon capture technologies for bio-energy applications
- Current status of conversion technologies (gasification, pyrolysis) and research needs for clean biomass conversion for electricity
- Thermochemical conversion strategies and challenges, including gasification, fast pyrolysis, and solvent liquefaction of biomass
- Overview of carbon capture technology for bio-energy applications
11:15 AM: Discussion | video
Session II: State of the technology and challenges for commercial-scale BECCS activities, identification of research needs for policies and incentives for implementation of BECCS, life cycle impacts of large-scale deployment, and socio-economic barriers to BECCS activities.
01:15 PM: Commercial-Scale Activities
- Capacity and challenges of bio-energy implementation and BECCS
- Prepping of biomass, pretreatment, efficiency considerations (benefits, associated emissions, costs)
- Economics of bio-energy and potential carbon negativity, including major drivers
- Status and challenges of bio-energy implantation activities (feedstock cost, ash behavior, social/policy)
- Biomass transition between the deployment of first bio-electricity plants and scaled-up BECCS for climate mitigation
01:45 PM: Discussion | video
02:45 PM: Cross-cutting Issues
- Financial gaps between costs and profitability
- Policies to incentivize broader implementation of BECCS and biofuel/biochar approaches
- Incentives for current implementations of bioenergy and biofuels/biochar
- Potential indirect land use change impacts (especially for crops biomass)
- Large-scale deployment of BECCS impacts on biodiversity, water resources, and nutrients? Land availability effects on large-scale deployment of BECCS
- Landowner interest in participating in biomass supply
- Barriers associated with social acceptability of BECCS technologies and how can they be addressed (both for bio-energy production and geological carbon storage)
- Public policy and governance related to BECCS, emphasis on land-use issues. Incentives for current implementations of bio-energy and needs for broader implementation
- Energy-related life cycle analyses, life cycle impacts of bio-energy, and additional LCA research needs
Margaret Torn, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, via Webex
- Ecological aspects of bio-energy production: anthropogenic influence on the carbon-cycle through land use, ecosystem-climate feedbacks, soil carbon cycling
03:45 PM: Discussion | video
04:30 PM: Adjourn Workshop
Workshop on Direct Air Capture—October 24, 2017
Workshop objective: to examine the scientific questions for developing a research and development plan of DAC moving forward, and assess co-benefits, costs, and barriers to implementation of this technology at significant scales.
8:30 AM: Workshop Introduction — Stephen Pacala (NAS), Committee Chair | slides |
PART 1: DIRECT AIR CAPTURE
8:45 AM: Opening Remarks — Jennifer Wilcox, Committee Member | slides |
Session I — Commercial-Scale Activities
9:00 AM: Geoff Holmes, Carbon Engineering
9:25 AM: Jan Wurzbacher, Climeworks
9:50 AM: Discussion | video |
Session II — Scaling out and up of CCS, Challenges and Lessons Learned
10:45 AM: Ron Munson, Global CCS Institute | slides | video |
11:00 AM: Clay Sutton and Tim Barckholtz, ExxonMobil
11:15 AM: Ajay Mehta, Shell
11:30 AM: Roger Aines, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory | slides | video |
11:45 PM: Discussion | video |
Session III — System-Level Considerations of DAC
1:30 PM: Matthew Realff, Georgia Institute of Technology | slides | video |
1:50 PM: Niall MacDowell, Imperial College of London | slides | video |
2:10 PM: Discussion | video |
PART 2: MINERAL CARBONATION
2:55 PM: Opening Remarks — Peter Kelemen (NAS) – Committee Member | slides |
5:00 PM: Workshop Adjourn
Webinar on Geologic Sequestration—November 15, 2017
Session 1: Carbon Mineralization for Storage
Peter Kelemen, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Session Moderator
Slides | Video
10:25: Proposed injection of CO2-rich fluid into basaltic lavas of the ocean crust offshore off Washington and British Columbia
Dave Goldberg, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
11:15 Session 2: Experience with Storage in Subsurface Pore Space
11:15: Introduction to this session
Sally Benson, Stanford University, Session Moderator
12:15: Webinar adjourns
Workshop on Geologic Sequestration—November 28, 2017
Palo Alto, CA
8:45: Welcome and overview of the National Academies study—Steve Pacala, Princeton, Committee Chair
9:00: SESSION 1: IN SITU CARBON MINERALIZATION FOR DIRECT AIR CAPTURE AND STORAGE
Moderator: Peter Kelemen
1a. Kinetics and locations (30 minute talks + 15 minutes of discussion)
1b. Processes: cracking, clogging, swelling, quaking (30 minute talks + 10 minutes of discussion)
12:45: Working lunch
1:30: SESSION 2: STORAGE IN SUBSURFACE PORE SPACE
Moderator: Sally Benson
2a. Experience (20 minute talks + 10 minutes of discussion, or panels)
2b. Monitoring (20 minute talks + 10 minutes of discussion, or panels)
5:00: Workshop adjourns
Webinar on the Use of Landfills for the Long-Term Storage of Biogenic Organic Carbon—December 12, 2017
Webinar on Integrated Assessment Modeling of Land-use Implications of Bioenergy—January 30, 2018
Introduction—Annie Levasseur, Ecole de Technologie Superieure