Expertise on the committee includes the following areas: chemistry, energetic materials, security, law enforcement, supply chain operations, industry operations, and regulatory affairs.

Victoria A. Greenfield (Chair), George Mason University
Robert G. Best, DTRA – JIDO
Leo E. Bradley, LE Bradley Consulting LLC
John C. Brulia, Austin Powder Company (Retired)
Carrie L. Castille, Independent Consultant
David G. Delaney, University of Maryland
Art Fraas, Resources for the Future
William J. Hurley, Institute for Defense Analysis
Karmen N. Lappo, Sandia National Laboratories
Becky D. Olinger, Los Alamos National Laboratory
Jimmie C. Oxley, University of Rhode Island
Kevin Smith, Sustainable Supply Chain Consulting
Timothy M. Swager*, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Kirk Yeager, Federal Bureau of Investigations


*Resigned February 26, 2017


Victoria A. Greenfield (chair) is a visiting scholar in the Department of Criminology, Law and Society at George Mason University. She specializes in national security and international social and economic issues, including transnational crime, with a particular interest in drug production and trafficking. In addition, she advises federal agencies and others on strategic planning, performance evaluation, and program management. Some of her latest publications explore means of assessing the harms of criminal activities, the supply chain for doping products, mechanisms for reducing opium-poppy cultivation in Afghanistan, police department investments in information technology, and benefits and costs of terrorism regulation and border security. Greenfield has also written extensively on international trade, globalization, and defense economics. In recent years, she has held the positions of Senior Economist, RAND Corporation (currently adjunct), and Admiral Crowe Chair of the Economics of the Defense Industrial Base, U.S. Naval Academy. She also served on the National Academies’ Committee on Estimating Costs to the Department of Justice of Increased Border Enforcement. Previously, she was the Senior Economist for International Trade and Agriculture, the President’s Council of Economic Advisers, White House; the Chief International Economist, Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs, U.S. Department of State; and Principal Analyst, U.S. Congressional Budget Office. Greenfield holds a B.S. in agricultural economics (Cornell University) and a Ph.D. in agricultural and resource economics (U.C. Berkeley).

Robert G. Best is a DoD Civilian with the Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Joint Improvised-Threat Defeat Organization (JIDO) as a Highly Qualified Expert (HQE) to design and implement a Joint-Forces CIED Signatures Program.  In this role, he applies his comprehensive knowledge of spectral phenomenology and evolving processes, expert knowledge of state-of-the-art MASINT component and system development, and skill in effective program management techniques. He leads the multi-agency IPT and coordinates the development of the C2S2 system and the critical signatures measurement program. In addition, he serves as an interface between the Intelligence community, R&D community, and JIEDDO to help identify, evaluate and coordinate the technical development of new MASINT sensors and/or exploitation hardware/software systems. He works closely with the JIEDDO Intel Division and COIC analysts to help them develop an operational understanding of the observables and exploitable signatures suitable for network attack. Dr. Best has more than 30 years experience in remote sensing, digital image processing and spatial information systems. His career has been primarily focused on applications in counter-terrorism, counter CC&D, counter-narcotics, C-IED, and radiological emergency response. He is a recognized subject matter expert in MASINT signatures phenomenology, sensor systems, digital image processing and exploitation. Dr. Best has a proven history in developing concepts into viable programs. He has designed, integrated, and deployed MASINT systems into operational environments for the Intelligence Community and US Military Services. Robert has B.S. degrees from South Dakota State University in wildlife and fisheries science and general chemistry (both 1974), a M.S. in wildlife and fisheries science from South Dakota State University (1979), and a Ph.D. in environmental engineering (1988) from the University of Wisconsin Madison.

Leo E. Bradley is an independent consultant and owner of LE Bradley Consulting LLC.  He is currently consulting with the Energetics Research Group at Johns Hopkins University Whiting School of Engineering as well as several private companies. He speaks and writes frequently on counter-IED, combating weapons of mass destruction, explosive ordnance disposal, and explosives safety.  He has extensive knowledge on explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) gained during his 29 years as part of the United States Army. He served as the commander of the 184th Ordnance Battalion from 2004-2006 out of Fort Gillem, Georgia, and when deployed to Iraq. He then served as the Chief of the Army’s EOD Division from 2006-2008 and worked with NATO groups to establish common policies and standards relating to EOD and for countering IEDs. From 2008-2010 he was assigned to the Office of the Secretary of Defense as Chief of EOD and Humanitarian Mine Action. In 2011 to 2012 he led the Combined Joint Task Force Paladin (counter-IED) in Afghanistan which was charged with defeating improvised explosive devices with marked success. From 2010-2012 he served as the Commander of the 71st Ordnance Group out of Fort Carson, Colorado, and has worked with local, state, and federal law enforcement in the United States for safe and effective EOD. In 2012 he was assigned to the DoD Explosives Safety Board and worked to standardize explosive disposal procedures. Leo was a co-founder of the group Return to Adventure in 2011 which is a charity with the goal of assisting the recovery and rehabilitation of wounded EOD and law enforcement bomb squad personnel through outdoor activities and adventure sports. Leo completed a B.S. in science at Pennsylvania State University in 1985.

John C. Brulia worked in the commercial explosive industry from 1973-2016, most recently at the Austin Powder Company (now retired).  Prior to his commercial explosives career, John served as a demolitionist with the U.S. Army Special Forces from 1967-1969 in Asia, including duty in Special Operations in Vietnam.  After his discharge, he continued his military service as a demolitionist in various Special Forces National Guard and Reserve units until 1977.  From 1973-2002, John worked for the Atlas Powder Company (and its successors ICI Explosives and Orica USA) in multiple roles, including one as a manager of technical development in the area of emulsion explosives, another leading a team of scientists and engineers as a manager of bulk explosives, and another as a vice president of a wholly-owned subsidiary responsible for the purchase, storage, transportation, sale, and use of explosives.  He worked internationally for 8-years with Orica prior to his retirement in 2002.  Subsequently, he served 3-years as the President of Maurer and Scott, Inc., a privately-held company involved in commercial explosives distribution and specialized blasting services to mining operations.  At Austin Powder from 2005-2016, John was the Director of Safety and Compliance, working with regulatory agencies and responsible for developing security plans, including those for several explosive manufacturing facilities.  While at Austin Powder, he also worked as a member representative with the Institute of Makers of Explosives (IME), wherein he served a term as the Chairman of its Security Committee. Throughout his career, John presented technical papers and wrote multiple articles and handbook chapters on explosives safety, security and regulation.  Since his retirement in February, John has worked with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) to provide advanced explosives training, volunteers with the International Society of Explosives Engineers (ISEE), and continues to serve in his 28th year on the New York State Blasters Examination Board.  He has held a blasting license in New York for over 40-years.  John obtained a B.A. in government in 1972 at the Pennsylvania State University.

Carrie Castille is an agriculture and natural resources consultant in Louisiana. She served as the former Associate Commissioner for the Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry for public policy and senior advisor to Commissioner Mike Strain. She assumed the role at the department after a ten year tenure as an Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University Agricultural Center. She holds a bachelor of science degree in engineering from the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, a Masters degree in environmental toxicology and doctorate in renewable natural resources with a minor in political science from Louisiana State University. She is a fellow of the Food Systems Leadership Institute and serves as the chair-elect on the National Agriculture Research Extension Education and Economics Board appointed by USDA Secretary Vilsack. She also served on the National Council on Environmental Policy and Technology by the EPA Secretary Gina McCarthy. She created the very successful Louisiana Master Farmer Program while at LSU and continues to work closely with agriculture and forestry producers on national and state policy issues including the agricultural economic development, food safety, environment and natural resources, international trade and agriculture labor.

David G. Delaney
has been a senior fellow at the Center for Homeland Security since 2016. Previously, he taught at Indiana University while serving as the deputy director and senior fellow of the Center for Applied Cybersecurity Research. Mr. Delaney served as a deputy associate general council at the Department of Homeland Security where he advised and coordinated efforst related to security and law enforcement. After law school he was a law clerk to Judge James E. Baker of the US Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces. Previously, he had been a military police officer from 1994-1999 at positions in the United States and Europe. David earned a B.S. from the US Military Academy at West Point, an M.A. in Law and Diplomacy from Tufts University, and a J.D. From Boston College.

Arthur G. Fraas joined the RFF as a Visiting Fellow in April 2009 after a distinguished career in senior positions within the federal government. In 2008, he retired after 21 years as chief of the Natural Resources, Energy, and Agriculture Branch, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget. Much of his work has examined the federal regulatory process, with a particular focus on the impact of environmental regulations. At RFF, Fraas works on a variety of issues related to energy and the environment, including projects looking at the tradeoffs between using biomass in transportation and in electronic applications, the treatment of uncertainty in regulatory analysis of major rules, and the potential regulation of greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act. Before Joining the OMB, Fraas was a senior economist at the Council on Wage and Price Stability, a staff member of the Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly, an assistant professor of economics at the U.S. Naval Academy, and a staff economist with the Federal Reserve System. He graduated from Cornell University in 1965 with a bachelor’s degree in engineering physics, and earned his doctorate in economics from the University of California at Berkeley in 1972.

William J. Hurley has been with the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) since 1985 and is currently an adjunct research staff member in the Joint Advanced Warfighting Division. Prior to coming to IDA, Dr. Hurley was with the Center for Naval Analyses. His research has addressed a wide variety of defense issues with emphases on joint forces, analytical methods, concept development, and advanced technologies. He has directed or coauthored over 50 studies sponsored principally by offices within the Department of Defense. Recent focal points have included urban operations, irregular warfare, and countering improvised explosive devices.  Dr. Hurley has participated on several study panels addressing these areas organized by the Defense Science Board, the National Academies, and NATO. In addition to his research responsibilities, Dr. Hurley was the associate program director and then program director of the Defense Science Study Group (DSSG) from 1991 to 1998. The DSSG is an ongoing program of education and study that introduces outstanding young professors of science and engineering to current issues of national security and military systems and organizations. The program is sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Dr. Hurley’s academic background is in theoretical physics. He received a B.S. in physics from Boston College (1965), a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Rochester (1971), and held research positions at Syracuse University and the University of Texas.

Karmen N. Lappo currently works at Sandia National Laboratories as a principle member of the technical staff where she has researched explosive materials. She is a member of the International Society of Explosive Engineers and has published reports on explosive materials and their security implications. Karmen obtained a M.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of Texas at Austin in 2003.

Becky D. Olinger is detailed to National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Counter Terrorism and Counter Proliferation as a Science Advisor.  Previously, she was a program manager at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Global Security Office where she managed efforts in nuclear security. From 1991-1998 Becky was a research assistant at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center studying improvised explosives and explosive materials.  She worked as a senior scientist and program manager from 2004-2006 working on projects to counter improvised explosive devices for law enforcement and the Department of Defense. In 2006 Becky started working at Los Alamos as a nuclear weapons engineer and project leader on National Nuclear Safety Administration projects. From 2007-2009 she was the DE-1 deputy group leader and program manager, supervising a team of researchers studying problems related to counter-terrorism and homemade explosives. Becky received a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from the University of New Mexico Albuquerque in 2005 where she utilized infrared spectroscopy techniques to study a variety of materials, including explosives.

Jimmie C. Oxley is Professor of Chemistry at the University of Rhode Island (URI), co-Director of the Forensic Science Partnership of URI and team-lead and former Director of the Department of Homeland Security Center of Excellence in Explosive Detection, Mitigation, and Response. Oxley’s lab specializes in the study of energetic materials including explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics. Dr. Oxley has organized and chaired numerous symposia and short courses for government and industrial laboratories on topics ranging from hazards analysis to bomb threats, has testified before congress on the topic of explosive materials and detection, and has authored numerous papers on energetic materials. She is an elected fellow of the North American Thermal Analysis Society and a reviewer for the FBI, NSF, and National Academy of Sciences’ (NAS) National Research Council (NRC). Dr. Oxley has served on six NRC panels including the Military Science Board advising the Army on Chemical Weapon Destruction (1998-99), Chemistry Board advising ATF and Congress on the Committee on Marking, Rendering Inert, and Licensing of Explosive Material (1997-98), National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB) advising the FAA on Commercial Aviation Security (1995-98); the Manufacturing Board’s Advanced Energetic Materials (2001-2002), the Naval Studies Board’s Determining Basic Research Needs to Interrupt the Improvised Explosive Device Delivery Chain (2005-2008), and the Army Research Lab’s Armor and Armaments panel (2009-2011). Dr. Oxley earned a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of British Columbia in 1983.

Kevin Smith is a career supply chain practitioner and the President and CEO of Sustainable Supply Chain Consulting. Sustainable Supply Chain Consulting was founded in 2009 to provide advice and guidance to large scale supply chains and related businesses concerning strategic planning and organizational development. Kevin served for eight years as Senior Vice President of Supply Chain & Logistics for CVS/pharmacy, the retail arm of CVS Caremark, where his role was to facilitate changes in the overall supply chain. Kevin has been a longtime board member for the Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP), Special Advisor to Supply Chain 50, and contributor to the Retail Industry Leaders Association (RILA). Additionally, Kevin is vice chair of the Distribution Business Management Association (DBMA) Supply Chain Leaders in Action Executive Committee. Smith is a graduate from the University of Massachusetts with a Bachelor of Arts degree in English.

Timothy M. Swager (NAS) is the John D. MacArthur Professor of Chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of  Technology. A native of Montana, he received a B.S. from Montana State University in 1983 and a Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology in 1988. After a postdoctoral appointment at MIT he was part of the chemistry faculty at the University of Pennsylvania and returned to MIT in 1996 as a Professor of Chemistry and served as the Head of Chemistry from 2005-2010. He has published more than 350 peer-reviewed papers and has more than 50 issued/pending patents. Swager’s honors include: Election to the National Academy of Sciences; an Honorary Doctorate from Montana State University; the Lemelson-MIT Award for Invention and Innovation; Election to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; the American Chemical Society Award for Creative Invention; the Christopher Columbus Foundation Homeland Security Award; and the Carl S. Marvel Creative Polymer Chemistry Award (ACS). Swager’s research interests are in design, synthesis, and study of organic-based electronic, sensory, high-strength and liquid crystalline materials. His liquid crystal designs demonstrated shape complementarity to generate specific interactions between molecules and includes fundamental mechanisms for increasing liquid crystal order by a new mechanism referred to as minimization of free volume. Swager’s research in electronic polymers has been mainly directed at the demonstration of new conceptual approaches to the construction of sensory materials. These methods are the basis of the FidoTM explosives detectors (FLIR Systems Inc), which have the highest sensitivity of any explosives sensor. Other areas actively investigated by the Swager group include radicals for dynamic nuclear polarization, applications of nano-carbon materials, organic photovoltaic materials, polymer actuators, and luminescent molecular probes for medical diagnostics. He is the founder of 4 companies (DyNuPol, Iptyx, PolyJoule, and C­2 Sense) and has served on a number of corporate and government boards.

Kirk Yeager has been a senior forensic scientist at the Federal Bureau of Investigations since 2010. Kirk completed his B.S. in chemistry in 1987 at Lafayette College, and obtained his Ph.D. in Inorganic Chemistry at Cornell University in 1993. From 1994-1995 he worked as a postdoctoral research scientist at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and researched the hazards and terrorist potentials of energetic materials. Starting in 1995 he held an adjunct faculty appointment at NMT and taught several courses on energetic chemistry in addition to conducting research on the production of explosive materials and their safe utilization. In 2000 Kirk joined the FBI as a physical scientist and forensic examiner with the explosives unit. In this capacity he conducted examinations of crime scenes involving bombing and arson, and developed training procedures for law enforcement bomb squads. As a senior scientist with the explosives unit he served as an international expert in explosive and hazardous devices and managed research programs dedicated to creating characterization techniques for emerging improvised explosive materials. In 2010 Kirk was promoted to the executive service, holding positions as the FBI’s chief explosives scientist and as a senior level science adviser. Kirk has provided expert testimony in criminal cases involving explosives, and technical presentations to government agencies, law enforcement organizations, and congress. He has published many articles, research reports, and book chapters on the topic of explosives and has been recognized with several awards, including the FBI Director’s Award twice. Kirk also serves on the International Association of Bomb Technicians and Investigators advisory committee.