Sam Kelly

3. Your affiliation
University of Minnesota Duluth

4. Your discipline
Physical Oceanography

5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the decade.
(1) What are the cumulative local and global effects of intermittent, high-frequency, and small-scale processes? 

(2) In which ways and to what extent are ocean dynamics sensitive to environmental changes? 

(3) How can observations and numerical models be optimally combined to reduce uncertainty in ocean predictions?
 
6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade.
(1) What is the global geography of intermittent, high-frequency, and small-scale physical processes? And, how do we adequately sample these processes?

(2) What are the dynamic roles of small-scale physical processes in shaping large-scale physical variability? 

(3) How do we improve predictions of intermittent, high-frequency, and small-scale physical processes?

7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)?

(1) Expanded support for developing, deploying, and disseminating creative and inexpensive instruments that have the potential to drastically increase the spatial and temporal resolution of in situ ocean observations. 

(2) Continued support for numerous exploratory and processed-based observational studies 

(3) Focused programs to reward, incentivize, and fund data, model, and instrument sharing with the general scientific community. E.g., directed support for maintaining public data servers, developing web pages, and writing user manuals. And, refining evaluation frameworks to emphasize sharing research products as much as publishing results.

8. Other comments pertinent to the committee’s charge.