Allison Miller

1. Your name
Allison Miller
3. Your affiliation
Schmidt Ocean Institute
4. Your discipline
Oceanography
5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the decade.
1. Ocean Acidification
2. Overfishing/Availability of Seafood
3. Deep sea research
6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade.
1. Ocean Acidification
2. Technology innovation – innovative sensors, monitoring, technology development etc.
3. Heat Budget/global warming of the oceans – how much heat can the ocean absorb?
7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)?
1. Research Funding beyond the Federal Government – Schmidt Ocean Institute, Gordon Betty Moore Foundation. They have funds and also set their own investment agendas beyond the scope of the Federal Government’s interest in Oceanography.
2. Access to cheaper/more distributed technologies. With decreasing budgets, free ship time (for example aboard the R/V Falkor) and increased use of AUVs, ROVs, etc. that don’t necessarily require large ships for research will become more widespread.
3. More Ocean Infrastructure, while OOI will be a great initiative for ocean observing once complete, scientists do not know much about what is being built and how they can be involved i.e. collect their data using the established infrastructure. From this data management will also play a larger role has collecting large amounts of data become the standard.
8. Other comments pertinent to the committee’s charge.
I urge the Committee to look beyond what is available or invested in by the Federal Government. The Schmidt Ocean Institute operates its own research vessel that researchers can use free of charge, the Marine Science and Technology Foundation awards contracts to new and emerging technology development, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation funds research focused on deep sea microbiology, The X Prize has an Ocean Health Initiative, etc. etc. These initiatives and foundations will become the standard – they can invest in more risky research and development than the Federal Government would take on and can often shape their own agendas.

Barbara Ransom

1. Your name
Barbara Ransom
3. Your affiliation
govermnent
4. Your discipline
marine geology and geophysics
5. Across all ocean science disciplines, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the decade.
The deep biosphere, who’s there, where is it, can we predict the distribution and composition of microbial consortia, what is their impact, and can we learn things about these microbes that will be important to natural products research, the origin of life, the global carbon cycle, or life in extreme envionments in temperature, pressure, and time.

Modeling the record of paleoclimate studies coming from seafloor sediments and integrating those records and creating models to mesh with Global Climate and Earth System Models so we can look backward as well as forward in time to be better be able to think about what we may be facing in the realm of climate change.

Understanding subseafloor carbon fluid and reservoirs and their impact on global carbon and geochemical cycles, subduction zone processes, including implications for island arc volcanism, seeps, earthquakes, and hydrothermal fluid-rock interaction in the subsurface.
6. Within your own discipline, please list 3 important scientific questions that you believe will drive ocean research over the next decade.
Themes are

1. The nature, extent, and longevity of the Deep Biosphere.

2. Chemical cycling through subduction zones and quantitative means to assess the impact of dehydration on convergent marging hazards (volcanoes, earthquakes, tsunamis.

3. Coastal Processes and Adaptation – 50% of the global population is on the coast. Sealevel rise, changes in climate and weather paterns, eutrophication, degradation of marine ecosystems, and sediment transport and erosion will be huge.
7. Please list 3 ideas for programs, technology, infrastructure, or facilities that you believe will play a major role in addressing the above questions over the next decade. Please consider both existing and new technology/facilities/infrastructure/programs that could be deployed in this timeframe. What mechanisms might be identified to best leverage these investments (interagency collaborations, international partnerships, etc.)?
AUVs and other robotic untethered vehicles outfitted with more and better geochemical and optical/motion sensors will be essential. Static and fixed assets will decline in importance. A program to help to accelerate technological and sensor development in this area is desperately needed.

Changing the structure of OCE to reflect interdisciplinary themes, as opposed to disciplines as it is now. For example biogeochemical cycles would combine programs, scientists and ideas from all of the OCE science programs (CO, PO, BO, and MGG) removing barriers between disciplines. Another example might be ocean chemical evolution which would involve the CO and MGG programs seamlessly, or perhaps Deep Biosphere which woud combine BO, MGG, and CO; coastal ocean processes could be another in which PO,CO, BO, and MGG would all be components.

Interagency collaboration with NOAA Ocean Exploration and the USGS Marine Geology group would strenghen all parties and expand use of federal faciliteis.
8. Other comments pertinent to the committee’s charge.
OCE has two science sections – one that deals with the water column and its biological inhabitants and the other with the solid earth beneath the water column where many processes that affect the water column occur. The present make up of the committee does not appear to reflect a balance of the representative disciplines involved (i.e., mostly water column scientists). Also don’t see much representation from ocean engineering, the third OCE section where many advances in tools and increased capabilities required for us to make new discoveries are included. If this commmittee is mainly focused on the water column, as it appears to be in terms of its composition, I fear that the important contributions from solid earth processes and ocean engineering will not be addressed and this committee may not be able to adequately guide all parts of the NSF Division of Ocean Science in potential priority areas for the future.