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Images, Page 3

These images, featured in the report Earth Observations from Space: The First 50 Years of Scientific Achievements, illustrate the many scientific advancements enabled by satellite observations.

Click on any image to see it full size.

Fractional snow cover on the Sierra Nevada

FIGURE 6.3: Fractional snow cover over the Sierra Nevada on April 1 (left) and May 1, 2005. Total snow-covered area is 23,100 km2 in April and 14,900 km2 in May. SOURCE: J. Dozier, University of California, Santa Barbara.

Buried river channels in the Sahara Desert

FIGURE 6.4: Image from Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A) showing buried river channels in the Sahara Desert. SOURCE: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/history/hires/1981/SIR-A_image.jpg

Elevation and relief map of Africa

FIGURE 6.6: Elevation and relief map of Africa from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with brown and yellow at the lower elevations, rising through green, to white at the highest elevations. Blue areas on the map represent water within the mapped tiles, each of which includes shorelines or islands. SOURCE: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

CZCS image of phytoplankton pigments

FIGURE 8.3: CZCS image of phytoplankton pigments in the North Atlantic Ocean. CZCS was flown on the Nimbus 7 satellite launched in 1978. CZCS was the first multispectral imager designed specifically for satellite observations of ocean color variations. One of the primary determinants of ocean color is the concentration of chlorophyll pigments in the water. High concentrations of chlorophyll (red and brown areas in the image) are seen along the continental shelf (1) and above Georges Bank (2) where the biological productivity is high. Intermediate concentrations of chlorophyll pigments are shown in green, and the lowest levels are blue. Notice that the Gulf Stream (3) and the warm core eddy to the north (blue circle) have very low concentrations, reflecting the fact that the stream and the Sargasso Sea to the south are relatively nutrient poor. SOURCE: NASA.

Spatial coverage of data from Antarctica

FIGURE 7.1: Spatial coverage of data from Antarctica. Top: Surface transverses since the 1957-1958 International Geophysical Year. SOURCE: National Snow and Ice Data Center, University of Colorado. Bottom: Satellite coverage. SOURCE: John Crawford, Canadian Space Agency, NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data

FIGURE 9.4: Weighted normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data plotted against time and latitude zone. Note the highly seasonal effects in the northern latitudes, the influence of deserts in the 20 degrees-30 degrees N latitude zone, the generally constant response in equatorial areas, and the influence of the low proportion of land area south of 30 degrees S. SOURCE: J. E. Pinzon (SSAI-NASA/GSFC) and C. J. Tucker (NASA/GSFC).

Landsat satellite series

FIGURE 10.1: Timeline of the Landsat satellite series. SOURCE: NASA.

Croplands of the world in the year 2000

FIGURE 10.2: Croplands of the world in the year 2000. SOURCE: N. Ramankutty.

World Fire Atlas

FIGURE 10.6: World Fire Atlas from ATSR. SOURCE: European Space Agency (http://esamultimedia.esa.int/images/EarthObservation/worldfireatlas_H.jpg).

View of Earth's geoid from the GRACE mission

FIGURE 11.1: View of Earth's geoid from the GRACE mission yields deep structures. Using an ellipsoid to approximate the bulk of the Earth's shape and departures from the ellipsoid are represented by the geoid elevation above or below the ellipsoid. The geoid can be as low as 106-m (350-f) below the ellipsoid or as high as 85-m (280-f) above. SOURCE: NASA/Deutsches Zentrum für Luft-und Raumfahrt (DLR).

Earth's gravity anomaly from the GRACE mission

FIGURE 11.2: Earth's gravity anomaly from the GRACE mission yields smaller-scale structures. Standard gravity is defined as the value of gravity for a perfectly smooth idealized Earth, and the gravity anomaly (expressed in units of milliGals, mGal) is a measure of how actual gravity deviates from this standard. SOURCE: NASA/Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft-und Raumfahrt (DLR).

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