Active layer thickness:

  • Hubbard, S. S., C. Gangodagamage, B. Dafflon, H. Wainwright, J. Peterson, A. Gusmeroli, C. Ulrich, Y. Wu, C. Wilson, J. Rowland, C. Tweedie and S. D. Wullschleger. 2013. Quantifying and relating land-surface and subsurface variability in permafrost environments using LiDAR and surface geophysical datasets. Hydrogeology Journal 21(1):149-169.
  • Bhatti, F. S. Chapin, B. de Groot, D. Efremov, W. Eugster, M. Fukuda, T. Gower, L. Hinzman, B. Huntley, G. J. Jia, E. Kasischke, J. Melillo, V. Romanovsky, A. Shvidenko, E. Vaganov and D. Walker. 2002. Environmental variation, vegetation distribution, carbon dynamics and water/energy exchange at high latitudes. Journal of Vegetation Science 13(3):301-314.
  • Minsley, B. J., J. D. Abraham, B. D. Smith, J. C. Cannia, C. I. Voss, M. T. Jorgenson, M. A. Walvoord, B. K. Wylie, L. Anderson, L. B. Ball, M. Deszcz-Pan, T. P. Wellman and T. A. Ager. 2012. Airborne electromagnetic imaging of discontinuous permafrost. Geophysical Research Letters 39.
  • Pastick, N. J., M. T. Jorgenson, B. K. Wylie, B. J. Minsley, L. Ji, M. A. Walvoord, B. D. Smith, J. D. Abraham and J. R. Rose. 2013. Extending airborne electromagnetic surveys for regional active layer and permafrost mapping with remote sensing and ancillary data, Yukon Flats Ecoregion, Central Alaska. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 24(3):184-199.
  • Peddle, D. R. and S. E. Franklin. 1993. Classification of permafrost active layer depth from remotely sensed and topographic evidence. Remote Sensing of Environment 44(1):67-80.

Ground ice:

  • Grosse, G., L. Schirrmeister, V. V. Kunitsky and H. W. Hubberten. 2005. The use of CORONA images in remote sensing of periglacial geomorphology: An illustration from the NE Siberian Coast. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 16(2):163-172.
  • Jones, B. M., G. Grosse, C. D. Arp, M. C. Jones, K. M. W. Anthony and V. E. Romanovsky. 2011. Modern thermokarst lake dynamics in the continuous permafrost zone, northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences 116
  • Kreig, R. A. 1977. Terrain analysis for the Trans-Alaska pipeline. Civil Engineering ASCE 47:61-65.
  • Sannel, A. B. K. and I. A. Brown. 2010. High-resolution remote sensing identification of thermokarst lake dynamics in a subarctic peat plateau complex. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 36:S26-S40.
  • Yoshikawa, K., C. Leuschen, A. Ikeda, K. Harada, P. Gogineni, P. Hoekstra, L. Hinzman, Y. Sawada and N. Matsuoka. 2006. Comparison of geophysical investigations for detection of massive ground ice (pingo ice). Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets 111(E6).

Snow characteristics:

  • Derksen, C., A. Walker and B. Goodison. 2003. A comparison of 18 winter seasons of in situ and passive microwave-derived snow water equivalent estimates in Western Canada. Remote Sensing of Environment 88(3):271-282.
  • Hall, D. K. and G. A. Riggs. 2007. Accuracy assessment of the MODIS snow-cover products. Hydrological Processes 21:1534-1547.
  • Hancock, S., R. Baxter, J. Evans and B. Huntley. 2013. Evaluating global snow water equivalent products for testing land surface models. Remote Sensing of Environment 128:107-117.
  • Kelly, R. E., A. T. Chang, L. Tsang and J. L. Foster. 2003. A prototype AMSR-E global snow area and snow depth algorithm. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 41(2):230-242.

Land surface temperature:

  • Hachem, S., M. Allard and C. Duguay. 2009. Using the MODIS land surface temperature product for mapping permafrost: An Application to Northern Quebec and Labrador, Canada. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 20(4):407-416.
  • Jones, A., L. Montanarella, V. Stolobovoy, G. Broll, C. Tarnocai, O. Spaargaren and C.-L. Ping. 2010. Soil Atlas of the Northern Circumpolar Region. Luxemborg: Publications Office of the European Union.
  • Kimball, J. S., L. A. Jones, K. Zhang, F. A. Heinsch, K. C. McDonald and W. C. Oechel. 2009. A satellite approach to estimate land-atmosphere CO2 exchange for boreal and Arctic biomes using MODIS and AMSR-E. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 47(2):569-587.

Surface topography:

  • Bowen, Z. H. and R. G. Waltermire. 2002. Evaluation of light detection and ranging (LIDAR) for measuring river corridor topography. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 38(1):33-41.
  • Jones, B. M., J. M. Stoker, A. E. Gibbs, G. Grosse, V. E. Romanovsky, T. A. Douglas, N. E. M. Kinsman and B. M. Richmond. 2013. Quantifying landscape change in an Arctic coastal lowland using repeat airborne LiDAR. Environmental Research Letters 8(4).

Longer term surface subsistence:

  • Chen, F. L., H. Lin, W. Zhou, T. H. Hong and G. Wang. 2013. Surface deformation detected by ALOS PALSAR small baseline SAR interferometry over permafrost environment of Beiluhe section, Tibet Plateau, China. Remote Sensing of Environment 138:10-18.
  • Liu, L., K. Schaefer, T. J. Zhang and J. Wahr. 2012. Estimating 1992-2000 average active layer thickness on the Alaskan North Slope from remotely sensed surface subsidence. Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface 117.

Thermokarst distribution:

  • Jones, B. M., G. Grosse, K. M. Hinkel, C. D. Arp, S. Walker, R. A. Beck and J. P. Galloway. 2012. Assessment of pingo distribution and morphometry using an IfSAR derived digital surface model, western Arctic Coastal Plain, Northern Alaska. Geomorphology 138(1):1-14.

Seasonal heave/subsistence:

  • Short, N., B. Brisco, N. Couture, W. Pollard, K. Murnaghan and P. Budkewitsch. 2011. A comparison of TerraSAR-X, RADARSAT-2 and ALOS-PALSAR interferometry for monitoring permafrost environments, case study from Herschel Island, Canada. Remote Sensing of Environment 115(12):3491-3506.

Surficial geology terrain units:

  • Catapano, I., L. Crocco, Y. Krellmann, G. Triltzsch and F. Soldovieri. 2012. A tomographic approach for helicopter-borne ground penetrating radar imaging. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters 9(3):378-382.
  • Kreig, R. A. and R. D. Reger. 1982. Air-photo analysis and summary of landform soil properties along the route of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. Geologic Report 66. Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, AK.
  • Minsley, B. J., J. D. Abraham, B. D. Smith, J. C. Cannia, C. I. Voss, M. T. Jorgenson, M. A. Walvoord, B. K. Wylie, L. Anderson, L. B. Ball, M. Deszcz-Pan, T. P. Wellman and T. A. Ager. 2012. Airborne electromagnetic imaging of discontinuous permafrost. Geophysical Research Letters 39.
  • Moorman, B. J., S. D. Robinson and M. M. Burgess. 2003. Imaging periglacial conditions with ground-penetrating radar. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 14(4):319-329.
  • Mulder, V. L., S. de Bruin, M. E. Schaepman and T. R. Mayr. 2011. The use of remote sensing in soil and terrain mapping—A review. Geoderma 162(1-2):1-19.
  • Rawlinson, S. E. 1993. Surficial geology and morphology of the Alaskan Central Arctic Coastal Plain. Fairbanks, AK: State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys.
  • Siemon, B. 2006. Electromagnetic methods—frequency domain. In Groundwater Geophysics: A Tool for Hydrogeology. Kirsch, R., eds. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Soil organic layer

  • Gomez, C., R. A. V. Rossel and A. B. McBratney. 2008. Soil organic carbon prediction by hyperspectral remote sensing and field vis-NIR spectroscopy: An Australian case study. Geoderma 146(3-4):403-411.
  • Jarmer, T., P. Rosso and M. Ehlers. 2010. Mapping Topsoil Organic Carbon of Agricultural Soils from Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Data. Presented at Hyperspectral 2010 Workshop, March 17-19, 2010, Frascati, Italy.
  • Johnson, K. D., J. W. Harden, A. D. McGuire, M. Clark, F. M. Yuan and A. O. Finley. 2013. Permafrost and organic layer interactions over a climate gradient in a discontinuous permafrost zone. Environmental Research Letters 8(3).
  • Laamrani, A., O. Valeria, L. Z. Cheng, Y. Bergeron and C. Camerlynck. 2013. The use of ground penetrating radar for remote sensing the organic layer-mineral soil interface in paludified boreal forests. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 39:74-88.
  • Mishra, U. 2013. Soil health and climate change. Soil Science Society of America Journal 77(1):336.
  • Rosa, E., M. Larocque, S. Pellerin, S. Gagne and R. Fournier. 2009. Determining the number of manual measurements required to improve peat thickness estimations by ground penetrating radar. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 34(3):377-383.
  • Slater, L. D. and A. Reeve. 2002. Investigating peatland stratigraphy and hydrogeology using integrated electrical geophysics. Geophysics 67(2):365-378.

Surface water bodies:

  • Arp, C. D., B. M. Jones, F. E. Urban and G. Grosse. 2011. Hydrogeomorphic processes of thermokarst lakes with grounded-ice and floating-ice regimes on the Arctic coastal plain, Alaska. Hydrological Processes 25(15):2422-2438.
  • Hinkel, K. M., B. M. Jones, W. R. Eisner, C. J. Cuomo, R. A. Beck and R. Frohn. 2007. Methods to assess natural and anthropogenic thaw lake drainage on the western Arctic coastal plain of northern Alaska. Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface 112(F2).
  • Kravtsova, V. I. and A. G. Bystrova. 2009. Changes in thermokarst lake sizes in different regions of Russia for the last 30 years. Kriosfera Zemli (Earth Cryosphere) 13:16-26.
  • Labrecque, S., D. Lacelle, C. R. Duguay, B. Lauriol and J. Hawkings. 2009. Contemporary (1951-2001) evolution of lakes in the Old Crow Basin, Northern Yukon, Canada: Remote sensing, numerical modeling, and stable isotope analysis. Arctic 62(2):225-238.
  • Lee, H., M. Durand, H. C. Jung, D. Alsdorf, C. K. Shum and Y. W. Sheng. 2010. Characterization of surface water storage changes in Arctic lakes using simulated SWOT measurements. International Journal of Remote Sensing 31(14):3931-3953.
  • Paine, J. G., J. R. Andrews, K. Saylam, T. A. Tremblay, A. R. Averett, T. L. Caudle, T. Meyer and M. H. Young. 2013. Airborne lidar on the Alaskan North Slope: Wetlands mapping, lake volumes, and permafrost features. 32(7):798-805.

Soil moisture:

  • Moghaddam, M., S. Saatchi and R. H. Cuenca. 2000. Estimating subcanopy soil moisture with radar. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 105(D11):14899-14911.
  • Liu, Q., R. H. Reichle, R. Bindlish, M. H. Cosh, W. T. Crow, R. de Jeu, G. J. M. De Lannoy, G. J. Huffman and T. J. Jackson. 2011. The contributions of precipitation and soil moisture observations to the skill of soil moisture estimates in a land data assimilation system. Journal of Hydrometeorology 12(5):750-765.
  • Tabatabaeenejad, A., M. Burgin and M. Moghaddam. In review. P-band radar retrieval of subcanopy and subsurface soil moisture profile as a second-order polynomial: First AirMOSS results. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing.
  • Tabatabaeenejad, A. and M. Moghaddam. 2011. Radar retrieval of surface and deep soil moisture and effect of moisture profile on inversion accuracy. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters 8(3):478-482.

Land cover:

  • Jones, H. G. and R. A. Vaughan. 2010. Remote sensing of vegetation: Principles, techniques, and applications. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Jorgenson, M. T., J. E. Roth, P. F. Miller, M. J. Macander, M. S. Duffy, A. F. Wells, G. V. Frost and E. R. Pullman. 2009. An Ecological Land Survey and Landcover Map of the Arctic Network. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/ARCN/NRTR—2009/270. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.
  • Selkowitz, D. J. and S. V. Stehman. 2011. Thematic accuracy of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 land cover for Alaska. Remote Sensing of Environment 115(6):1401-1407.

Vegetation structure and composition:

  • Beck, P. S. A., S. J. Goetz, M. C. Mack, H. D. Alexander, Y. F. Jin, J. T. Randerson and M. M. Loranty. 2011a. The impacts and implications of an intensifying fire regime on Alaskan boreal forest composition and albedo. Global Change Biology 17(9):2853-2866.
  • Goetz, S. J., M. Sun, A. Baccini and P. S. A. Beck. 2010. Synergistic use of space-borne LiDAR and optical imagery for assessing forest disturbance: An Alaska case study. Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences 115(G00E0).


  • Blackard, J. A., M. V. Finco, E. H. Helmer, G. R. Holden, M. L. Hoppus, D. M. Jacobs, A. J. Lister, G. G. Moisen, M. D. Nelson, R. Riemann, B. Ruefenacht, D. Salajanu, D. L. Weyermann, K. C. Winterberger, T. J. Brandeis, R. L. Czaplewski, R. E. McRoberts, P. L. Patterson and R. P. Tymcio. 2008. Mapping US forest biomass using nationwide forest inventory data and moderate resolution information. Remote Sensing of Environment 112(4):1658-1677.
  • Ji, L., B. K. Wylie, D. R. Nossov, B. Peterson, M. P. Waldrop, J. W. McFarland, J. Rover and T. N. Hollingsworth. 2012. Estimating aboveground biomass in interior Alaska with Landsat data and field measurements. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 18:451-461.
  • Neigh, C. S. R., R. F. Nelson, K. J. Ranson, H. A. Margolis, P. M. Montesano, G. Q. Sun, V. Kharuk, E. Naesset, M. A. Wulder and H. E. Andersen. 2013. Taking stock of circumboreal forest carbon with ground measurements, airborne and spaceborne LiDAR. Remote Sensing of Environment 137:274-287.
  • Raynolds, M. K., D. A. Walker, H. E. Epstein, J. E. Pinzon and C. J. Tucker. 2012. A new estimate of tundra-biome phytomass from trans-Arctic field data and AVHRR NDVI. Remote Sensing Letters 3(5):403-411.


  • Engram, M., K. W. Anthony, F. J. Meyer and G. Grosse. 2012. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) backscatter response from methane ebullition bubbles trapped by thermokarst lake ice. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 38(6):667-682.
  • Walter, K. M., M. Engram, C. R. Duguay, M. O. Jeffries and F. S. Chapin. 2008. The potential use of synthetic aperture radar for estimating methane ebullition from Arctic lakes. Journal of the American Water Research Association 44(2):305-315.

Water vapor flux

  • Groves, D. G. and J. A. Francis. 2002a. Moisture budget of the Arctic atmosphere from TOVS satellite data. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 107(D19).
  • Groves, D. G. and J. A. Francis. 2002b. Variability of the Arctic atmospheric moisture budget from TOVS satellite data. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 107(D24).


  • Zulueta, R. C., W. C. Oechel, H. W. Loescher, W. T. Lawrence and K. T. Paw U. 2011. Aircraft-derived regional scale CO2 fluxes from vegetated drained thaw-lake basins and interstitial tundra on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Global Change Biology 17(9):2781-2802.